[PART 2]


A return to the origin of SARS, the ecology of COVID-19, and the public’s refusal to follow public health recommendations — globally.

An All-Hazards Approach to Pandemic COVID-19: Clarifying Pathogen Transmission Pathways Toward the Public Health Response [PART 2]

Part 2: Pathogen Transmission Pathways and an All-Hazards Approach Increasing cases demonstrate that the experts have neither fully assessed the virus risk yet, nor is there consensus on the methods to prevent its spread. WHO guidelines have no clear definition of a pandemic and its pandemic alert seven-phase descriptions are influenza specific (WHO, 2009). Current biosurveillance is inadequate — creating vulnerabilities to future epidemics by novel pathogens — and public health messaging about zoonotic disease reservoirs and modes of transmission is lacking (Eddy, Sase, & Schuster, 2010; Eddy, Stull, & Balster, 2013). An Equivocal Source of a Pandemic The origin of SARS-CoV-2 is still being investigated, including “…wild animals sold illegally in the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market” (Huang, 2020; Tan et al., 2020). Considering the biological evolution of COVID-19, WHO finds that although the novel pathogen, SARS-CoV-2, moved from animal to human reservoirs, the intermediate host animal has not been identified, stating that it could be “a domestic food animal, a wild animal, or a domesticated wild animal which has not yet been identified” (WHO, 2020d). WHO is investigating the capacity for food to directly, and indirectly through cross-contamination, transmit COVID-19 if mishandled (WHO, 2020d). New research supports the concept of food as a pathogen transmission source (Pung et al., 2020). Pathogen Transmission Pathways SARS-CoV-2 transmission pathways have not been clearly identified, although body fluids are specifically mentioned and the importance of sanitizing services is emphasized in definitive guidance documents from U.S. agencies (CDC, 2020b; Pung et al., 2020). CDC reports that “like other close-contact environments, ships may facilitate transmission of respiratory viruses from person-to-person through exposure to respiratory droplets or contact with contaminated surfaces” (CDC, 2020b), which would account for other indirect contact…



Raymond Eddy BSc., M.P.H., REHS, CP-FS đź—»

Global Public Health; Writer: Medical & Scientific, Speculative Science; Sci-fi; Former SME ASPR/FEMA/Georgetown University; Marvel; Content is mine